Bhuyan, A., Tripathy, A., Padhy, R. K., & Gautam, A. (2022). Evaluating the lithium-ion battery recycling industry in an emerging economy: A multi-stakeholder and multi-criteria decision-making approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 331.


Lithium-ion battery (LIB), a prime residual energy source for electric vehicles (EVs), entails a market showing exponential growth with the rising global push towards electric mobility. However, such an increase leaves us with ‘big battery waste problem’ as these LIBs approach their end-of-life (EoL). Moreover, despite the availability of technologies for complete recycling of used LIBs, the lack of authorized recycling facilities and poor policy framework would hinder sustainable mobility. This study focuses on a multi-stakeholder perspective in compiling and synthesizing the key barriers and enablers of LIB recycling within the PESTEL (political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal) framework. The barriers and enablers are identified using a systematic literature review and a 3-stage Delphi study on various experts from the LIB recycling industry in India. Grey theory is blended with DEMATEL (decision making trial and evaluation laboratory) technique to evaluate interdependencies among the constituting factors. It is followed by a comparative assessment that highlights the essence of different stakeholder perspectives. The results indicate inadequacy in recycling regulations in government policies and take-back schemes in the stakeholder business model as the most significant barrier and enabler, respectively. The current work proposes a decision-making framework defining multi-stakeholder roles for effective LIB recycling in an emerging economy.