Sanguri, K., Ganguly, K., & Pandey, A. (2021). Modelling the barriers to low global warming potential refrigerants adoption in developing countries: A case of Indian refrigeration industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 280 part 2, 124357.


Conventional synthetic refrigerants are responsible for ozone depletion and have high global warming potential (GWP). Thus, countries across the globe are progressively phasing out such refrigerants by 2050 under the Kigali amendment. While the developed countries in Europe are the pioneers in promoting the use of low GWP refrigerants, the developing countries are still lagging. This is happening despite these countries being a signatory to the Kigali amendment. However, it is contextual to mention here that the refrigeration industry in developing countries, such as India, faces several barriers to the adoption of low GWP refrigerants. The phasing out of high GWP refrigerants will be considerably delayed if these issues remain unresolved, and there is inadequate research on such barriers to the adoption. With an aim to investigate the precincts of limited adoption, this study identifies 18 barriers through an extensive literature survey. It also contributes to the literature by proposing two more factors responsible for the limited adoption of low GWP refrigerants in the Indian context. Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) methodology is used to elucidate the hierarchical relationship among these barriers. Lack of government incentives emerges as the most compelling factor limiting the adoption of low GWP refrigerants. The research also suggests a four-pronged strategy to promote the adoption of low GWP refrigerants in India.